Growing Grammar to the Saterfrisian course by P. Kramer

Accompanying lessons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 - Back to lesson 1 - Verbs and numbers

For each lesson, new words are put in bold. Most older words are temporarily removed, but are gathered in the Grown Grammar at the end.

Lesson 1

You learned:

articles        
substantives singular feminine   Läkse
    masculine   Dai
adjectives       goud
pronouns personal acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
  unpersonal     et
  interrogative     wo
numerals       een
adverbs        
prepositions        
conjunctions        
interjections        
verbs present singular 3rd person gungt
names masculine     Wülm, Dierk
vowels shorts     Läkse, Wülm, gungt, et
  longs     een, die, mie, wo
  diphthongs     goud, Dai,

Vowels: At the end of a word the long oo and uu are written single: wo, ju.
The details indicated in
vowels about íe, úu and ü'ü are not observes here.




Lesson 2

New learned words are printed in boldt.

articles singular masculine   die
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dät
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Woain
    feminine   Ku
    neutral   Huus, Rääd
  plural     Huuse, Reede, Woaine
adjectives       oold, jung, näi
pronouns personal acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
  unpersonal     et, dät
  interrogative     wo
numerals       een, two
adverbs       uk
prepositions        
conjunctions       man
interjections        
verbs present singular 3rd person is, gungt
    plural all persons sunt
  imperative     heer
names masculine     Wülm, Dierk
vowels shorts     ä, ü, u, e, man
  longs     ee, ie, o=oold, ju=Huus, Rääd
  diphthongs     ou, ai, Woain, näi

The plural is usually formed by adding -e to the singular: Huuse.
Some words change the vowel:
Rääd - Reede.
Some words show irregular plurals: the plural of Ku is Bäiste.




Lesson 3

articles singular masculine   die
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dät
  indefenite     n
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Buur, Winkel
    neutral   Huus
  plural     Woaine
adjectives       näi, drok
pronouns personal nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
  unpersonal     et, dät
  interrogative     wo
numerals       two, tjo
adverbs       buppe, dan, nu, noch
prepositions        
conjunctions       man, un
interjections       jee, noa
verbs present singular 1st person bän, hääbe
      2nd person bäst, hääst
      3rd person is, gungt
    plural all persons sunt
names masculine     Wülm, Dierk
vowels shorts     ä, ü, u, e, a, in, drok
  longs     ee, ie, o=oo, u=uu, ää, noa
  diphthongs     ou, ai, Woain, näi

Normal word order: iek (Subject) bän (Verb) Buur (Object), iek hääbe n Winkel = SVO
Reversed in questioning: bäst du Buur? = VSO.
Reversed after adverbs: Dan hääst (V) du (S) et drok (Adjunct): VSAd.

Lage der vowels Schon behandelt: Noch erwartet:
shorts ä, ü, u, e, a, i, o ö
longs ee, ie, o=oo, u=uu, ää, oa aa, öä, öö, üü
diphthongs ou, ai, oai, äi au, äuw, eeuw, ieuw, öi
Attention: o, u at the word end are alternative spellings of oo, uu.





Lesson 4

articles singular masculine   die
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dät
  indefenite     n
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Buur, Winkel, Tonk
    feminine   Raise
    neutral   Huus, Schap
  plural     Woaine
adjectives       ful, min
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
  personal plural 1st case 2nd person jie
    2nd/3rd/4th case 2nd person jou
  indefenite     et, dät, me
  possessive      
    plural 1st person uus
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative     sun
    neutral   dät
  interrogative     wo
  relative      
numerals       fjauer, fuul
adverbs       däälich, jäärsene, licht, nit, sicher, so, wäil
prepositions       mäd
conjunctions       man, un
interjections       jee, noa
verbs infinitive     iete
  present singular 1st person bän, hääbe
      2nd person bäst, hääst
      3rd person kricht, paaset
    plural all persons hääbe, konnen
  past participle     häiwed
names masculine     Wülm, Dierk
vowels shorts     ä, ü, u, e, a, i, o
  longs     ee, ie, o=oo, u=uu, ää, oa, paaset
  diphthongs     ou, ai, oai, äi, fjauer

Consonants: The pronunciation of s at the beginning of a word (sicher, so) is always sharp, as in English: sister.
The sch is always pronunciated with Ach-sound, as in Scottish, so Schap.
Verbs: The final -et for singular 3rd person present in paaset applies for je-verbs.
The final -n for plural present in konnen only applies the so called
preterito-presentic verbs duure, konne, moute, muuge, schälle, wiete, wolle that are further characterized by missing of final t (or s in English) in the singular 3rd person present tense, also in English hie kon_ 'he can_'.
Normal word order: SVAd:
Uus Schap is ful.
Jie (S) konnen (auxiliary verb) hier däälich wäil (Adjunct) iete (V) > SHAV.




Lesson 5

articles singular masculine   die; dän
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dät
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Räid, Sies, Sukker, Tee
    feminine   Humpe, Grammatik
    neutral   Täärp, Woud
  diminutive neutral   [litje Humpe]
  plural     Woaine, Woude
adjectives       gjucht, sääd
  inflected     litje, näie
  comparative     fääre
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
  personal plural     jie, wie
    2nd/3rd/4th case 2nd person jou
  indefenite     et, me
  possessive      
    plural 1st person uus
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative      
    neutral   dät
  interrogative     wo, wät
  relative      
numerals       fuul, fieuw
adverbs       deer, deerfon, glieks, hier
prepositions       ätter, foar, fon, in
conjunctions       man, un
interjections       noa, tonkje
verbs infinitive     moakje, tonkje, wäide
  present singular 1st person haw, kon
      2nd person hast, wolt
      3rd person paaset, gefaalt
    plural all persons gunge, wollen
  past participle     häiwed
  past tense singular 3rd person kwad
  imperative     leer, luk, fersäik
names masculine     Wülm, Dierk
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, oai, ou

Articles: The masculine article for the 3rd/4/ case is dän, short n.
Diminutives
are not generally used in Saterfrisian. Instead litje is added: litje Humpe.
Adjectives
with feminin nouns always have an inflection syllable -e added: ju litje Humpe, ne litje Humpe, litje Humpen.
This also occurs with masculine nouns, except
in case of an indefenite article: die näie Woain, näie Woaine, but n näien Woain.
With neutral nouns the inflection syllable only appears in plural or when the defenite article is applied: dät näie Huus, do näie Huuse, but otherwise it is missing: n näi Huus, näi Woater 'new water'.
MInd the second class of teh weak verbs, where the infinitive has a final -je: moakje, tonkje. The final syllables in the present singular are -je, -est, -et; plural -je: iek moakje, du moakest, hie moaket; wie moakje. The first class has an infinitive with final -e: leere; the final syllables of the present singular are -e, -st, -t; plural: -e: iek leere, du leerst, hie leert; wie leere.




Lesson 6

articles singular masculine   die, dän, n
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dät
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Jikkel, Kop
    feminine   Doore, Kipse, Wäitegaid
    neutral   Woud, Wäitegaid
  plural     Dooren, Wieuwljuude
adjectives       sääd, wäit
  inflected     näie, tichten
  comparative     fääre
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    2nd/3rd/4th case 2nd person jou
  indefenite     et, me
  possessive      
    plural 1st person uus
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative      
    neutral   dät
  interrogative     wät, wäkke
  relative      
numerals       bee, säks, n_bitje
adverbs       man
prepositions       ap, truch
conjunctions       man, un
interjections       noa, tonkje
verbs infinitive     wäide, gunge
  present singular 1st person kon, dreege
      2nd person hääst, wolt
      3rd person gefaalt, rient
    plural all persons konnen, schällen
  past participle     häiwed
  past tense singular 1st person wüül
      3rd person kwad
  imperative     fersäik, leer, luk
names masculine     Wülm, Dierk
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu, wüül
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, oai, ou, Wieuwljuude

Nouns: Wieuwljuude is the plural form of Wieuw, (so Wieuwmoanske); just as Monljuude to Mon.
Substantives with final e- have a final -n in plural: Dooren, Raisen.




Lesson 7

articles singular masculine   die, dän, n
    feminine   ju, de
    neutral   dät, t
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Wai
    feminine   Säärke, Schoule
    neutral   Weeder
  diminutive neutral    
  plural     Bäidene
adjectives       wäit, drok
  inflected     tichte, maale
  comparative     fääre
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    2nd/3rd/4th case 2nd person jou
    nominative 3rd person jo
  indefenite     me, wäl
  possessive      
    plural 1st person uus
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative      
    neutral   dät
  interrogative     wat, wäkke
  relative      
numerals       säks, soogen
adverbs       daach, deer, ieuwen, man, mäiden, wäch
prepositions       bie, an, uur
conjunctions       un, dät
interjections       tonkje, so
verbs infinitive     wäide, gunge
  present singular 1st person dreege, toanke
      2nd person hääst, wolt
      3rd person rient, lopt
    plural all persons schällen, spielje
  continuing     an t sjungen
  past participle     häiwed, weesen
  past tense singular 1st u. 3rd person kwad, geen
  imperative     leer, kiek
names masculine     Wülm, Dierk
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu, üü
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, ieuw, oai, ou

Articles: Instead of the feminine article ju one sometines finds de when leaning to a previous word.
Nouns:
Irregular plural forms apply for Wai - Weege and for Dai - Deege.
Adverbs: der is often applied at positions where it seems to be superfluous, but not as often as in Dutch!
With daach one means here 'notwithstanding the bad weather'.
Verbs:
Spielje is an example of the second class of t6he weak verbs, the je-verbs, only preserved in Frisian.
The construction with an t .. indicates a continuing activity.




Lesson 8

articles singular masculine   die, dän, n
    feminine   ju, de
    neutral   dät, t
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Baabe, Gebuursdai, Snäiwende
    feminine   Fier, Määme, Möie, Steede, Wiek
    neutral   Woud
  plural     Bäidene, Jier
adjectives       oold, touken
  inflected     glieke
  comparative     fääre, allr
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du
    masculine 3rd person hie
    feminine 3rd person ju
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
         
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
      2nd person jie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    2nd/3rd/4th case 2nd person jou
    nominative 3rd person jo
  indefenite     me, wäl
  possessive masculine 3rd person sin; sien
    feminine 3rd person hiere
    plural 1st person uus
      2nd person jou
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative feminine   ju
    neutral   dät
  interrogative     wo, wanner
  relative      
numerals       fjautich, füüftich, oachte, n_poor
adverbs       al, bolde, wier
prepositions       bie, an
conjunctions       dät, as
interjections       so, nu
verbs infinitive     gunge, hääbe
  present singular 1st person dreege, toanke
      2nd person hääst, wolt
      3rd person lopt, wäd
    plural all persons schällen, spielje
  past participle     weesen, grätlierd
  past tense singular 1st u. 3rd person kwad, geen
  imperative     kiek, , moak, sät
names masculine     Wülm, Dierk
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu, üü
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, ieuw, oai, ou, Möie

Nouns: Jier is not changed in plural, when counting, like some other nouns: two Puund 'two pounds' (1kg). Otherwise the plural is: do Jiere.
The days of the week: Sundai, Moundai, Täisdai, Middewiek, Tuunsdai, Fräindai, Snäiwende.
Verbs that have a stem with final -d, also have a final -d in the 3rd person singular: wäd.
Pronouns: Members of the nearest family are always indicated with the plural forms uus, jou.




Lesson 9

articles singular masculine   die, dän, n
    feminine   ju, de
    neutral   dät, t
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Besäik, Bruur, Käärel, Koaster,
    feminine   Naite, Oarbaid, Suster, Waareld
    neutral   ,Moanske
  plural     Bäidene
adjectives       fergeen, fier, loange
  inflected     ganse, kuute, litje
  comparative     allr, tichter
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du
    masculine 3rd person hie, die
    feminine 3rd person ju
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
      2nd person jie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    2nd/3rd/4th case 2nd person jou
    nominative 3rd person jo, do
  indefenite     wäl, wät
  possessive singular 1st person min, mien
      2nd person  
    masculine 3rd person sin, sien
    feminine 3rd person hiere
    plural 1st person uus
      2nd person jou
      3rd person hiere
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative masculine   die
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dat
    plural   do
  interrogative     wanner, wier, wieruur
  relative     wier
numerals       oachte, njuugen
adverbs       al, apstuuns, beeter, bolde, dan, drok, häär, noch, oafte, silläärge_nit, tichter_bie, tougong
  comparative     oafter
prepositions       bie, an, mäd
conjunctions       as, also, dan
interjections       so, nu
verbs infinitive     fiende, fräigje, leeuwe
  present singular 1st person toanke, weet
      2nd person wolt, meenst
      3rd person wäd, woont
    plural all persons blieuwe, kuume, baale, wieten
  1st Partizip     tougong_mäd_moaljen
  past participle     geen, kuud, blouked
  past tense singular 1st u. 3rd person geen, kuud
    plural   hieden, wieren
  imperative     kiek, sät
names masculine     Kloas
  feminine     Oaltje
  indefenite     Ait, Amerikoa, Düütsklound, Kanada
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu, üü
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, ieuw, oai, öi, ou, leeuwe

Normal word order with two helpverbs (auxiliary verbs: Jo hieden beeter wät tichter bie blieuwe kuud = SHAVH.
After adverv: Dan hieden jo [..] blieuwe kuud = AHSVH.
With one auxiliary: Deer kuud hiere Käärel Oarbaid fiende = AHSOV (compare Grammar Lessons 3 and 4).
Adjevtives will not be inflected after possessive pronouns when the substantive is neutral: hier näi Huus. feminine/masculine: min näie Woain.
Verbs: The reversed word order du meenst? stresses the pronoun du more than the usual: meenst du?
Saterfrisian does not show a seperate conjunctive form: hieden also means 'had' as well as 'would have'.
Some possessive pronouns change the vowel depending on the gender of the following substantive. So mien Suster, min Bruur. The same with: sien/sin, dien/din.




Lesson 10

articles singular masculine   die, dän, n
    feminine   ju, de
    neutral   dät, t
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Huund, Mon, Noaber, Ommer, Seelter, Wänt
    feminine   Äiwenge, Hounde, Sproake, Tied
    neutral   Ougefal, Wucht
  diminutive neutral   Aantje
  plural     Äiwende, Deege, Ljuude, Moanskene, Satsteekene, Spatien
adjectives       duftich, groot, hooch, keetich, lastich, licht, oain, scheen, Seeltersk
  inflected     litje, uurfloudige
  comparative     fääre, allr
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du, [höflich:] jie
    masculine 3rd person hie, die
    feminine 3rd person ju
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
      2nd person jie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    all Fälle 2nd person jou
    nominative 3rd person jo, do
  indefenite     wät, sälwen
    plural   sukke
  possessive singular 1st person min, mien
      2nd person  
    masculine 3rd person sin, sien
    feminine 3rd person hiere
    plural 1st person uus
      2nd person jou
      3rd person hiere
  reflexive   2nd person jou
  distributive      
  demonstrative masculine   die
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dät
    plural   sukke
  interrogative     wier, wäl2
  relative     wier
numerals       aal, aan, een, fuul, tjoon, two
adverbs       altied, deeruum, foarnunner, fonsälwen, gans, gjucht, ieuwen2, jädden, oafte, touhuus, wäch, wäil uk
  comparative     oafter
prepositions       fon, tou
conjunctions       as2 wan, also
interjections       gouden Dai, och, tjüüs
verbs infinitive     baale, brange, dwo, hoolde, kostje, kweede
  present singular 1st person weet, gunge
      2nd person wolt, meenst
      3rd person boalt, häd, kumt, mai, wol
    plural all persons beginne, hääbe, leere, mouten, sjo, wollen
  1st Partizip     tougong mäd moaljen
  past participle     leerd, woond
  past tense singular 1st u. 3rd person hiede, wüül
    plural   hieden, wieren
  imperative     föige ien, hoal, kopiere, oachte
  gerund     tou fäilen, tou heeren, dät scheenmoakjen
names masculine     Heinrich
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu, üü
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, eeuw, ieuw, oai, öi, ou

Diminutives only seldom appear: Aantje is such a case.
Numerals:
With masculine substantives,
the first three numerals are: aan, twäin, träi, instead of otherwise een, two, tjo. One thus finds aan Wänt beside een Wucht.
Verbs: with the polite pronoun jie in present one applies the plural form of the verb: jie beginne.
Gerund is the the infinitive-form with added final -n. It appears behind tou, as well as when then verbs is used substantively.
Also verbs with an infinitive ending in a vowel have a gerund with final -n, also: tou dwoon, dät sjoon.



Lesson 11

articles singular masculine   die, dän, n
    feminine   ju, de
    neutral   dät, t
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Disk, Kääden, Tuun
    feminine   Lust, Uure
    neutral   Bääd, Huus, Lucht, Soaks, Weeder
  diminutive neutral   Aantje
  plural     Appelsienen, Boome, Stoule
adjectives       ädder, fluch, koold, kroank, läip, leet, ljoacht, loos
  inflected     litje, uurfloudige
  comparative     allr, flugger
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du, jie
    masculine 3rd person hie, die
    feminine 3rd person ju
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
      2nd person jie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    all Fälle 2nd person jou
    nominative 3rd person jo, do, se
    acc./dative 3rd person  
  indefenite     wät, sälwen
    plural   sukke
  possessive singular 1st person min, mien
      2nd person  
    masculine 3rd person sin, sien
    feminine 3rd person hiere
    plural 1st person uus
      2nd person jou
      3rd person hiere
  reflexive   2nd person jou
  distributive      
  demonstrative masculine   die
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dät
    plural   do
  interrogative     wier, wäl2
  relative     wier
numerals       alwen, neen, wäkke
adverbs       buute, deerfon, eerste, fon_ou, ieuwen, jäärsene, middeeges, säiwens, smäidens, sogoar, straks, uurs_wät
  comparative     oafter
prepositions       juun, sunner
conjunctions       also, as3
interjections       nit, wät
verbs infinitive     baale, lääse, reeke, sitte
  present singular 1st person gunge_lääse, iete, läite, schäl, stounde_ap
      2nd person doarst, hääst_gjucht, laist
      3rd person wol, schient
    plural all persons reeke, sätte
  1st Partizip     tougong mäd moaljen
  past participle     leerd, woond
  past tense singular 1st u. 3rd person hiede, wüül
    plural   hieden, wieren
  imperative     lai, reek
  gerund     dät moakjen,
names masculine     Heinrich
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu, üü
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, eeuw, ieuw, oai, öi, ou

Instead of the personal pronoun plural jo leaning against a previous word often se appears.
The adverb buute has a final -n added behind ätter and fon: ätter buuten. The sam with binne, buppe: fon binnen, ätter buppen.



Lesson 12

articles singular masculine   die, dän, n
    feminine   ju, de
    neutral   dät, t
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Bauer, Ooldbaabe, Tuun, Uurwinst
    feminine   Gruunde, Regierenge, Siede, Steede, Sträite
    neutral   Foulk, Jäild, Lieuwend, Stuk
  diminutive neutral   Aantje
  plural     Stoule, Huuse
adjectives       riek, ruum, stukken, uur
  inflected     juure, lieke
  comparative     allr, flugger
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du, jie
    masculine 3rd person hie, die
    feminine 3rd person ju
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
      2nd person jie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    all Fälle 2nd person jou
    nominative 3rd person jo, do, se
    acc./dative 3rd person  
  indefenite     sälwen, älk
    plural   sukke
  possessive singular 1st person min, mien
      2nd person dien
    masculine 3rd person sin, sien
    feminine 3rd person hiere
    plural 1st person uus
      2nd person jou
      3rd person hiere
  reflexive   2nd person jou
      3rd person sik
  distributive      
  demonstrative masculine   die
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dit, disse, sowät
    plural   do
  interrogative     wier, wäl2
  relative     do_der, wät, wier
numerals       moor, sofuul, tweelich
adverbs       deerfoar, juust, niks, soloange, toulääst
  comparative     oafter
prepositions       juun, sunner
conjunctions       also, as3
interjections       jee, och
verbs infinitive     gewäide, kriege, moakje, schoomje
  present singular 1st person läite, schäl
      2nd person doarst, laist
      3rd person koopet, kon, lät, nimt
    plural all persons kostje, moakje, stounde
  1st Partizip     tougong mäd moaljen
  past participle     baud, moaked
  past tense singular 1st u. 3rd person stuud, waas
    plural   wieren, woonden
  imperative     lai, reek
  gerund     dät moakjen
names masculine     Heinrich
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu, üü
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, eeuw, ieuw, oai, öi, ou

Pronouns reflexiv 3rd person: one finds accordingly: hi schoomet sik, jo schoomje sik etc.
Verbs: Final -ed for the 2nd participle in moaked applies for je-verbs.
In der past tense one has moakede, plural moakeden. No e appears behind l and r: spield, spielde, grätlierd, grätlierde.
Die verbs der 1st Klasse haben da -d, -de, -den: leerd, leerde, leerden.




Lesson 13

articles singular masculine   die, dän, n
    feminine   ju, de
    neutral   dät, t
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Fädder
    feminine   Äide. Familie
    neutral   Noude, Suude, Woud
  diminutive neutral   Aantje
  plural     Stoule, Huuse
adjectives       stukken, stil
  inflected     lieke, bääste
  comparative     allr, flugger
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du, jie
    masculine 3rd person hie, die
    feminine 3rd person ju
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
      2nd person jie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    all Fälle 2nd person jou
    nominative 3rd person jo, do, se
    acc./dative 3rd person  
  indefenite     älk, aal
    plural   sukke
  possessive singular 1st person min, mien
      2nd person dien
    masculine 3rd person sin, sien
    feminine 3rd person hiere
    plural 1st person uus
      2nd person jou
      3rd person hiere
  reflexive   2nd person jou
      3rd person sik
  distributive      
  demonstrative masculine   die
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dit, disse, sowät
    plural   do
  interrogative     wier, wäl2 ,
  relative     do_der, wät, wier
numerals       aal, neen, trättien
adverbs       alleene, apmoal, bieloangs, bolde, buppe, deer..wai, fielicht, man_moal, tourääch, unner
  comparative     oafter
prepositions       ätter..wai, mee, twiske, sunner
conjunctions       as3, dät
interjections       och, du
verbs infinitive     kiekje
  present singular 1st person schäl, nieme
      2nd person gungst, kumst
      3rd person lät, nimt
    plural all persons gunge, heere, ounfange
  1st Partizip     tougong mäd moaljen
  past participle     baud, moaked
  past tense singular 1st u. 3rd person waas, koom, toachte
    plural   schuulen, woonden
  imperative     lai, reek
  gerund     dät moakjen
names masculine     Heinrich, Jan
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu, üü
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, eeuw, ieuw, oai, öi, ou

Attention: Iek toachte, wie schuulen deer man moal kiekje. This has the same meaning as: Iek toachte, dät wie deer man moal kiekje schuulen.
Iek wol ätter Amerikoa, also: Iek wol ätter Amerikoa wai.




Lesson 14

articles singular feminine/masculine   die, dän, n
        ju, de
    neutral   dät, t
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Flieger, Gjoome, Middel, Raisende, Sicherhaidsgjoome Stoul
    feminine   Kaante, Nummer, Swimwääste
    neutral   Diert, Eende, Ooge
  diminutive neutral   Aantje
  plural     Meeter, Nummere, Oogene
adjectives       fräi, loos2, weer
  inflected     bääste, älke
  comparative     allr, beeter
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du, jie
    masculine 3rd person hie, die
    feminine 3rd person ju
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    all Fälle 2nd person jou
    nominative 3rd person jo, do, se
    acc./dative 3rd person  
  indefenite     älk, aal
    plural   sukke
  possessive singular 1st person min, mien
      2nd person dien
    masculine 3rd person sin, sien
    feminine 3rd person hiere
    plural 1st person uus
      2nd person jou
      3rd person hiere
  reflexive   2nd person jou
  distributive   3rd person sik
  demonstrative masculine   die
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dit, disse, sowät
    plural   do
  interrogative     wier, wäl2
  relative     do_der, wät, wier
numerals       fjautich, fjautien
adverbs       fluks, unnerwains
  comparative     oafter
prepositions       fon2, uum, unner, uut
conjunctions       of, of2, deeruum_dät
interjections       du, tonk
verbs infinitive     fljooge, kriege, sitte, släipe
  present singular 1st person schäl, nieme
      2nd person gungst, kumst
      3rd person lät, nimt
    plural all persons gunge, heere
  1st Partizip     tougong mäd moaljen
  past participle     moaked, täld
  past tense singular 1st u. 3rd person kuud(e), saach, schuul, siet
      2nd person kuust
    plural   fertälden, kuuden, moasten, wuuden
  imperative     lai, reek
  gerund     moakjen, kiekjen
names masculine     Heinrich, Jan
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu, üü
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, eeuw, ieuw, oai, öi, ou

Nouns: Meeter does not change in plural, when counting; compare with Lesson 8.




Lesson 15

articles singular masculine   die, dän, n
    feminine   ju, de, e
    neutral   dät, et
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Eene, Hoangst, Jikkel, Sats, Tööneboank
    feminine   Kaste, Köäkene, Nummer, Uursättenge
    neutral   Papier, Resultoat, Swäites
  diminutive neutral   Kluntje
  plural     Hoangste, Kluntjene
adjectives       bong, gau
  inflected     gjuchte, gjuchten, spreekenen, tomme
  comparative     allr, beeter
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du, jie
    masculine 3rd person hie, die, er
    feminine 3rd person ju
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    all Fälle 2nd person jou
    nominative 3rd person jo, do, se
    acc./dative 3rd person  
  indefenite     älk, aal
    plural   sukke
  possessive singular 1st person min, mien
      2nd person dien, din
    masculine 3rd person sin, sien
    feminine 3rd person hiere
    plural 1st person uus
      2nd person jou
      3rd person hiere
  reflexive   2nd person jou, die
      3rd person sik
  distributive      
  demonstrative masculine   die
    feminine   ju
    neutral   dit, disse, sowät
    plural   do
  interrogative     wier, wäl2
  relative     do_der, wät, wier
numerals       fjautien, füüftien, insen
adverbs       älkemoal, deer..mäd, fuuls, naargends, oun, uumekierd
  comparative     oafter
prepositions       fon2, uum, unner, uut
conjunctions       of, of2, deeruum_dät
interjections       du, tonk
verbs infinitive     sitte, släipe, riede
  present singular 1st person schäl, nieme, wol
      2nd person hougest, sjuchst, waast
      3rd person lät, nimt, drammet, kon, lait, säkt
    plural all persons gunge, heere
  1st Partizip     tougong mäd moaljen
  past participle     moaked, täld
  past tense singular 1st u. 3rd person kuud(e), saach, siet
      2nd person kuust, wüült
    plural   fertälden, kuuden, moasten, wuuden
  imperative     ferglieke, fersjuch, lustere, oantwoude, reekene, schrieuw, spräk, uursät
  gerund     tou reekenjen
names masculine     Heinrich, Jan
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o=oo, oa, u=uu, üü, Köäkene, Tööneboank
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, eeuw, ieuw, oai, öi, ou

Instead of the personal pronoun 3rd person masculine hie leaning against a previous word, often er appears. High German has er, Low German-Dutch has hie, but Frisian preserves both of them.
Not treated in this course are the rather seldom vowels ö and äuw, e.g. in bölkje 'roar', häuw 'hit' (past tense).




The grown Grammar !
Summarizes all data learnd above

articles singular masculine   die, dän, n
    feminine   ju, de, e
    neutral   dät, et
  indefenite     n, ne
  plural     do
nouns singular masculine   Baabe, Bauer, Besäik, Besäik, Buur, Dai, Disk, Eene, Fädder, Flieger, Gebuursdai, Gjoome, Hoangst, Huund, Jikkel, Kääden, Käärel, Koaster, Kop, Mon, Noaber, Ommer, Ooldbaabe, Räid, Sats, Seelter, Sicherhaidsgjoome, Sies, Snäiwende, Stoul, Sukker, Tee, Tonk, Tööneboank, Tuun, Uurwinst, Wänt, Wiek, Winkel, Wai, Woain,
    feminine   Äide, Äiwenge, Doore, Familie, Fier, Grammatik, Gruunde, Hounde, Humpe, Kaante, Kaste, Kipse, Köäkene, Ku, Läkse, Lust, Määme, Möie, Naite, Nummer, Oarbaid, Raise, Regierenge, Säärke, Schoule, Siede, Sproake, Steede, Sträite, Suster, Swimwääste, Tied, Uure, Uursättenge, Waareld, Wäitegaid
    neutral   Bääd, Diert, Eende, Foulk, Huus, Jäild, Lieuwend, Lucht, Moanske, Noude, Ooge, Ougefal, Papier, Rääd, Resultoat, Schap, Soaks, Stuk, Suude, Swäites, Täärp, Wäitegaid, Weeder, Woud, Wucht
  diminutives neutral   Aantje, [litje Humpe], Kluntje
  plural     Äiwende, Appelsienen, Bäidene, Boome, Deege, Dooren, Hoangste, Huuse, Jier(e), Kluntjene, Ljuude, Meeter(e), Moanskene, Nummere, Oogene, Reede, Satsteekene, Spatien, Stoule, Woaine, Woude, Wieuwljuude
adjectives       ädder, bong, drok, duftich, fergeen, fier, ful, gau, gjucht, goud, groot, hooch, jung, fergeen, fier, fluch, fräi, keetich, koold, kroank, läip, lastich, leet, licht, ljoacht, loange, loos, loos2, min, näi, oain, oold, riek, ruum, sääd, scheen, Seeltersk, stil, stukken, touken, uur, wäit, weer
  inflected     älke, bääste, ganse, gjuchte, gjuchten, glieke, juure, kuute, lieke, litje, maale, näie, spreekenen, tichten, tomme, uurfloudige
  comparative     allr, beeter, fääre, flugger, tichter
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person iek
      2nd person du, jie(höflich)
    masculine 3rd person die, hie, er
    feminine 3rd person ju
    acc./dative 1st person mie
      2nd person die
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wie
      2nd person jie
    acc./dative 1st person uus
    2nd/3rd/4th case 2nd person jou
    nominative 3rd person do, jo, se
    acc./dative 3rd person  
  indefenite     älk, dät, et, me, sälwen, wäl, wät
    plural   sukke
  possessive singular 1st person mien, min
      2nd person dien, din
    masculine 3rd person sien, sin
    feminine 3rd person hiere
    plural 1st person uus
      2nd person jou
      3rd person hiere
  reflexive   2nd person die, jou
      3rd person sik
  distributive      
  demonstrative masculine   die
    feminine   ju, sun(ne)
    neutral   dät, dit, disse, sowät
    plural   do, sukke
  interrogative     wäkke, wäl2, wanner, wät, wier, wieruur, wo
  relative     do der, wät, wier
numerals       aal, aan, alwen, een, bee, n bitje, fieuw, fjauer, fjautich, fjautien, füüftich, füüftien, fuul, moor, neen, njuugen, oachte, n poor, säks, sofuul, soogen, tjo, tjoon, trättien, tweelich, two, wäkke
adverbs       al, älkemoal, allene, altied, apmoal, apstuuns, beeter, bieloangs, bolde, buppe, buute, daach, däälich, dan, deer, deerfoar, deerfon, deer..mäd, deeruum, deer..wai, eerste, fon ou, fielicht, fluks, foarnunner, fonsälwen, fuuls, gans, gjucht, glieks, häär, hier, ieuwen, ieuwen2, jäärsene, jädden, juust, licht, mäiden, man, man moal, naargends, niks, nit, middeeges, noch, nu, oafte, oun, säiwens, sicher, silläärge nit, smäidens, so, sogoar, toulääst, soloange, straks, tichter bie, touhuus, tougong, tourääch, unner, unnerwains, uumekierd, uurs wät, wäch, wai, wäil, wäil uk, wier
  comparative     oafter
prepositions       ap, ätter, ätter..wai, foar, fon, fon2, in, juun, mäd, mee, sunner, tou, truch, twiske, unner, uum, uut
conjunctions       also, as, as2, as3, dan, dät, deeruum dät, man, of, of2, un, wan
interjections       du, gouden Dai, jee, nit, noa, nu, och, so, tjüüs, tonk, wät
verbs infinitive     baale, brange, dwo, fiende, fljooge, fräigje, gewäide, gunge, hoolde, iete, kiekje, kostje, kriege, kweede, lääse, leeuwe, moakje, reeke, riede, schoomje, sitte, släipe, tonkje, wäide
  present singular 1st person bän, dreege, gunge, gunge lääse, hääbe, iete, kon, läite, nieme, schäl, stounde ap, toanke, weet, wol
      2nd person bäst, doarst, gungst, hääst, hääst gjucht, hougest, kumst, laist, meenst, sjuchst, waast, wolt
      3rd person boalt, drammet, gefaalt, gungt, häd, is, kon, koopet, kricht, lait, lät, lopt, mai, nimt, paaset, rient, säkt, schient, wäd, wol, woont
    plural all persons baale, beginne, blieuwe, gunge, hääbe, heere, konnen, kostje, kumt, kuume, leere, moakje, mouten, ounfange, reeke, sätte, schällen, sjo, spielje, stounde, sunt, wieten, wollen
  continuing     tougong mäd moaljen, an t sjungen
  past participle     baud, blouked, geen, grätlierd, häiwed, kuud, leerd, moaked, täld, weesen, woond
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person geen, hiede, koom, kuud(e), kwad, saach, schuul, siet, stuud, toachte, waas, wüül
      2nd person kuust, wüült
    plural   fertälden, hieden, kuuden, moasten, schuulen, wieren, woonden, wuuden
  imperative     ferglieke, fersäik, fersjuch, föige ien, heer, hoal, kiek, kopiere, lai, leer, luk, lustere, moak, oachte, oantwoude, reek, reekene, sät, schrieuw, spräk, uursät
  gerund     tou fäilen, tou heeren, dät scheenmoakjen, tou kiekjen, tou reekenjen
names masculine     Heinrich, Jan, Kloas, Wülm, Dierk
  feminine     Oaltje
  indefenite     Ait, Amerikoa, Düütsklound, Kanada
vowels shorts     a, ä, e, i, o, ö, u, ü
  longs     aa, ää, ee, ie, o/oo, oa, öä, öö, u/uu, üü
  diphthongs     ai, äi, au, äuw, eeuw, ieuw, oai, öi, ou