Growing Grammar to the Frisian course by P. Kramer

Accompanying lessons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 - Back to lesson 1 - Verbs

For each lesson, new words are put in bold. Most older words are temporarily removed, but are gathered in the Grown Grammar at the end.

Lesson 1

You learned:

articles        
nouns common gender     les
adjectives       goed
pronouns personal acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
  unpersonal     it
  interrogative     hoe
numerals       ien
adverbs        
prepositions       mei
conjunctions        
interjections       goeie
verbs present singular 3rd person is, giet
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     les, is, (Jan), hoe, Pyt
  longs & diphthongs     mei, dy, my
  'curled' diphthongs     ien, goed
  'broken' diphthongs      
  stretched vowels      

Inquiring formulas are different from English!
Frisian dy, 'you' does not apply for the nominative case. Compare English I and me.
Apart from is, 3rd person singular of verbs usually ends in t: giet.
Note the sequence in giet it.
Note the special pronunciation of y in dy, my (and also in hy); this applies only for these words and only when stressed.
Note the special pronunciation of it with the vowel of English the!




Lesson 2

Newly learned words are bold printed

articles singular common gender   de
    neutral gender   it
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   fyts, ko, wein
    neutral gender   hs
  plural both genders   weinen
adjectives       ld, jong, nij
pronouns personal acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
  unpersonal     it
  interrogative     hoe
numerals       ien, twa
adverbs       ek
prepositions       mei, nei
conjunctions       mar
interjections       goeie
verbs present singular 3rd person is, giet
    plural all persons binne
  imperative     harkje
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y, jong, mar
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, ko, twa
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, ld,
  'broken' diphthongs      
  stretched vowels     hs

Gender: Most nouns have common gender, using de as an article.
A few nouns are neutral (
hs) with it as an article and showing some other pecularities.
Plurals are generally formed by attaching -en to the singular: weinen.
The same with fytsen, lessen; in the last case doubling ss in order to present the right
pronunciation.
Some words change the vowel in plural:
hs - huzen.
A few words have irregular plurals: the plural of ko is kij.
Verbs: Remember that final -e is clearly pronounced like in English the. So binne is disyllabic.
Harkje is an example of the second class of weak verbs, only preserved in Frisian.





Lesson 3

articles singular common gender   de
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   boer, winkel
    neutral gender   hs
  plural both genders   weinen
adjectives       nij, drok
pronouns personal nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
  unpersonal     it
  interrogative     hoe
numerals       twa, trije
adverbs       boppe, dan, no, noch
prepositions       mei
conjunctions       mar, en
interjections       ja, nee
verbs present singular 1st person bin, haw
      2nd person bist, hast
      3rd person is, giet
    plural all persons binne
  present participle     folgjend
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y, o, a
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a, nee
  'curled' diphthong     ie, oe,
  'broken' diphthongs      
  stretched vowels    

Normal word order: ik (Subject) bin (Verb) boer (Object), ik haw in winkel = SVO
Inverted in question: bist do boer? = VSO.
Inverted after adverbs: Dan hast (V) do (S) it drok (Adjunct): VSAd.
The present participle has a limited application, compare
krijt.
Note the special pronunciation of in with the vowel of English the !

Score of VOWELS Treated: Yet to come:
shorts a, e, i, , o, oe, y u,
longs & diphthongs a/aa, e/ee, ei/ij/y, o/oo, au/ou, ui., eu
'curled' diphthongs /, ie, oe ea, , oa, ue
'broken' diphthongs   i, e, o, uo, ju
stretched vowels ii
Note: aa, ee, oo, are other spellings for a, e, o in an open syllable, and for respectively.





Lesson 4

articles singular common gender   de
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   kast, reis
    neutral gender   hs
  plural both genders   weinen
adjectives       fol, min
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
  personal plural      
    all cases 2nd person jim
  indefinite     it, men
  possessive      
    plural 1st person s
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative     sa'n
    neutral gender   dat
  interrogative     hoe
  relative      
numerals       fjouwer, folle
adverbs       gau, grif, hjir, hjoed, net, sa, wis, wol
prepositions       mei
conjunctions       mar, en
interjections       nee, tanke
verbs infinitive     ite
  present singular 1st person bin, haw
      2nd person bist, hast
      3rd person krijt, past
    plural all persons hawwe, kinne
  present participle     folgjend
  past participle     hn
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/ ite, o, a, juster, s
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a, ee, fjouwer/ gau
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, ,
  'broken' diphthongs      
  stretched vowels    

Normal word order: SVAd: s kast is fol.
Jim (S) kinne (V) hjir hjoed wol (Adjunct) ite (Auxilliary) > SVAdAu. (English SVAuAd).
Auxillary do is not used in Frisian: past dat jim? 'does it suit you?'





Lesson 5

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   buorren, grammatika, sker, tee, tsiis|
    neutral gender   hs, wurd
  diminutive neutral   hompke
  plural both genders   weinen, wurden
adjectives       fier, sd
  inflected     nije
  comparative     fierder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
  personal plural     wy
    all cases 2nd person jim
  indefinite     it, men
  possessive      
    plural 1st person s
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative      
    neutral gender   dat
  interrogative     hoe, wat
  relative      
numerals       folle, fiif
adverbs       aanst, dr, drfan
prepositions       fan, foar, ta, yn
conjunctions       mar, en
interjections       nee, tanke
verbs infinitive     dwaan, ha(wwe), wurde
  present singular 1st person haw, kin
      2nd person hast, wolst
      3rd person past, liket
    plural all persons geane, sille
  present participle     folgjend
  past participle     hn
  past tense singular 3rd person sei
  imperative     lear, rieplachtsje, besykje
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, , sker
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a, ee, ou/au, aanst
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, , dr, geane
  'broken' diphthongs     buorren, firder, for
  stretched vowels     , fiif

Diminutives are always neutral: it hompke and are generally formed with suffix -ke: leske, fytske, koke, boerke, reiske.
Following --l and -n, the suffix is -tsje: winkeltsje, weintsje. Following -k and -t it is -je: bakje 'little box', kastje.
Sometimes the stem vowel is changed: hs - hske, fiif - fyfke 'five guilder coin'; final -e disappears: hompe - hompke.
Diminutives can be formed from nearly each substantiv and even from names. But don't be tempted to use it as a means to prevent learning the genders! That sounds too cute.
Adjectives attrubitively applied always get an inflection-suffix -e with common gender: de nije wein, in nije wein, nije weinen. With neutral gender the suffix only appears in plural or using the definite article: it nije hs, de nije huzen, but else it is missing: in nij hs, nij wetter 'new water'.
Nominally used after in one adds -n: in nijen 'a new one'.
Note the second class of weak Verbs, ending in -je in the infinitive: rieplachtsje, lykje, besykje. The present sg. endings are -je, -est, -et; pl. -je: ik lykje, do likest, hy liket; wy lykje. The first class has an infinitive-ending in -e: leare. The present sg. endings are -, -st, -t; pl. -e: ik lear, do learst, hy leart; wy leare.
Used as auxilliaries: wolle 'want': wolst do .. ha?; sille 'will': wat sille wy ..?; moatte 'shall'; kinne 'can'; meie 'be allowed to, may'. Most of these auxilliaries do not have the regular -t in present sg. 3: hy wol, hy sil, hy kin, hy mei.




Lesson 6

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   doar, holle, jas, pet, tsjerke, wiette
    neutral gender   wurd, waar
  diminutive neutral   hompke, bytsje
  plural both genders   doarren, froulju
adjectives       sd, wiet
  inflected     nije, tichte
  comparative     fierder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
  indefinite     it, men
  possessive      
    plural 1st person s
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative      
    neutral gender   dat
  interrogative     wat, hokker
  relative      
numerals       beide, seis
adverbs       mar, tegearre ||
prepositions       oer, op, troch
conjunctions       mar, en
interjections       nee, tanke
verbs infinitive     wurde, gean
  present singular 1st person kin, draach
      2nd person hast, wolst
      3rd person liket, reint
    plural all persons kinne, moatte
  present participle     folgjend
  past participle     hn
  past tense singular 1st person woe
      3rd person sei
  imperative     besykje
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, ,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, , , ea, doar
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, tegerre
  stretched vowels     , ii

Nouns: frou has a special plural froulju; so manlju to man.
Vowel 'breaking' in plural shows doarren to doar. From wiet is derived witte with broken vowel.
Verbs: Compare plural geane to infinitive gean. This difference is charactistic for the few monosyllabic verbs:
stean 'stand', wy steane; slaan 'hit', wy slane; jaan 'to give', wy jouwe; dwaan, wy dogge; sjen 'to see', wy sjogge.





Lesson 7

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   dei, moarn, skoalle, wei
    neutral gender   bern, skiep
  diminutive neutral   hompke
  plural both genders   bern, skiep
adjectives       wiet, ml
  inflected     nije, tichte
  comparative     fierder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person se, hja
  indefinite     men, ien
  possessive      
    plural 1st person s
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative      
    neutral gender   dat
  interrogative     hoe, wat, hokker
  relative      
numerals       seis, sn
adverbs       der, derom, dochs, efkes, fuort, krekt, mar, moarn, wakker
prepositions       by, oan
conjunctions       en, dat
interjections       tanke, sa
verbs infinitive     wurde, gean
  present singular 1st person draach, tink
      2nd person hast, wolst
      3rd person reint, rint
    plural all persons moatte, boartsje
  present participle     folgjend, oan it sjongen
  past participle     hn, west
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person sei, gie
  imperative     besykje, sjoch
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, ,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, , , ea
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, e
  stretched vowels     , ii

Nouns: Note that bern is unchanged in plural; only the article changes. The same with skiep.
Irregular plurals also for wei - wegen and dei - dagen.
Adjectives: Sometimes flection is omitted in order to show affection: it
ml waar, de ld man.
Adverbs: der is often used in places where it would be superfluous in English, but not as often as in Dutch!
By dochs is here meant 'notwithstanding the bad weather'.
Verbs:
The construction with oan it .. is only used to stress that the action is continuing.





Lesson 8

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   heit, jierdei, mem, sneon, wike
    neutral gender   feest, jier
  diminutive neutral   hompke
  plural both genders   froulju, bern
adjectives       wiet, ml
  inflected     nije, tichte
  comparative     fierder, lder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    masculine 3rd person hy, [enclitic:] er
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
         
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person se, hja
  indefinite     men, ien
  possessive masculine 3rd person syn, [nominal use:] sines
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person s, [nominal use:] uzes
      2nd person jim
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat
  interrogative     hoe, wannear
  relative      
numerals       acht, fjirtich, fyftich, santich
adverbs       al, gau, wer
prepositions       by, oan
conjunctions       dat, as
interjections       sa, no
verbs infinitive     wurde, gean
  present singular 1st person draach, tink
      2nd person hast, wolst
      3rd person rint, wurdt
    plural all persons moatte, boartsje
  present participle     folgjend, oan it sjongen
  past participle     west, lokwinske
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person sei, gie
  imperative     sjoch, set
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, ,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, , , ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, e
  stretched vowels     , ii

Days of the week: snein, moandei [mandi], tiisdei, woansdei [v:zdi], tongersdei, freed, sneon.
Verbs:
The past participle of the -je-verbs usually ends in -e: lokwinske, rieplachte, but besocht 'tried'.
Verbs with stem ending in -d just as well gets a -t in the 3rd person singular: wurdt.
Pronouns: The next of kin is always indicated with the plural forms s, jim.
Vowels: The sound eo appears also written as eu before r (seure 'complain') and as eau in past participles like bleaun 'stayed', skreaun 'written' to driuwe, skriuwe.





Lesson 9

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   besite, broer, frou, man, oefening, skoalmaster, suster, wrld
    neutral gender   jier, wurk
  diminutive neutral   hompke
  plural both genders   lstekens, spaasjes
adjectives       lang, koart
  inflected     ferline, hiele, lytse, oerstallige
  comparative     fierder, lder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    masculine 3rd person er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person hja, dy
  indefinite     ien, wat
  possessive singular 1st person myn
    masculine 3rd person syn, sines
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person s, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat
  interrogative     wannear, wr
  relative     wr't
numerals       santich, njoggen
adverbs       benei, better, dert, dus, faak, op 't heden, lyn, nea, noch, tichterby, tige, wol
  comparative     faker
prepositions       by, oan
conjunctions       as, want
interjections       sa, no
verbs infinitive     fine, freegje, leauwe
  present singular 1st person tink, wit
      2nd person wolst, bedoelst
      3rd person wurdt, wennet
    plural all persons bliuwe, komme, prate, witte
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     gien, kinnen, sjoen
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person gie, koe
    plural   hiene, wiene
  imperative     tink, helje
names masculine     Aaltsje, Amearika, Frysln, Klaas, Ljouwert
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, ,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, , , ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, e
  stretched vowels     , ii

Normal word order with two auxilliaries: Se hiene hjir better wat tichterby bliuwe kinnen = SAuAdVAu.
After adverb: Dan hiene se [..] bliuwe kinnen = AdAuSVAu.
With one auxilliary: Dr koe har man wurk fine = AdAuSOV (compare grammar lessons 3 and 4).
Nouns ending in -en, -er as well as foreign words and
diminutives ending in -e have plurals in -s: lstekens, spaasjes, hompkes.
Adjektives not inflected after a possessive with a neutral noun: har nij hs. Commons: myn nije wein.
Verbs: Inverted word order do bedoelst? stresses do more than normal: bedoelst do?





Lesson 10

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   buorman, Fries, hn, jonge, protte, taal, tiid
    neutral gender   wurk, jiskfet
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje
  plural both genders   dagen, lju, minsken
adjectives       aardich, eigen, Frysk, grut, heech, lstich, maklik, skjin, smoarch
  inflected     lytse, oerstallige
  comparative     fierder, lder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, [polite:] jo
    masculine 3rd person er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person hja, dy
  indefinite     wat, sels
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
    masculine 3rd person sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person s, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd person jo
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat
    plural   sokke
  interrogative     wr, wa
  relative     wr't
numerals       alle, tsien
adverbs       altyd, drom, faak, fansels, graach, hielendal, ths, wei, ynoarder
  comparative     faker
prepositions       te, tsjin
conjunctions       as2, dus
interjections       goendei, hear, och
verbs infinitive     bringe, hlde, kostje, prate, rinne, sizze
  present singular 1st person wit, gean
      2nd person wolst, bedoelst
      3rd person hat, komt, praat, sil, wol
    plural all persons begjinne, leare, moatte, sjogge, wolle
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     leard, wenne
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person hie, soe
    plural   hiene, wiene
  imperative     tink, helje
  gerund     te fielen, te hearren, it meitsjen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, ,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, , , ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, e
  stretched vowels     , ii

Verbs: with jo in the present the plural form applies: jo begjinne.



Lesson 11

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   oere, pit, tafel, tn
    neutral gender   bd, ljocht, ms, sin, waar
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje
  plural both genders   beammen, sinesapels, stuollen
adjectives       betiid, kld, let, moai, siik
  inflected     lytse, oerstallige
  comparative     lder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, jo
    masculine 3rd person er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     wat, sels
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
    masculine 3rd person sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person s, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd person jo
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat
    plural   dy, it
  interrogative     wr, wa
  relative     wr't
numerals       alve, guon
adverbs       bten, der f, earst, efkes, jns, middeis, moarns, oars, f, sels
  comparative     faker
prepositions       tsjin, snder
conjunctions       dus, as3
interjections       net, wat
verbs infinitive     jaan, sitte
  present singular 1st person lit, sil
      2nd person leist, meist
      3rd person wol, skynt
    plural all persons jouwe, sette
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     leard, wenne
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person hie, soe
    plural   hiene, wiene
  imperative     jou, lis, yt
  gerund     it meitsjen, lizzen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, ,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, , , ea, eo, f
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, e
  stretched vowels     , ii

The adverbs derfan, derf are separable, see also drfan, lesson 5



Lesson 12

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   bouwer, kant, pake, strjitte, winst
    neutral gender   jild, plak, regear, stik
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje
  plural both genders   stuollen, huzen
adjectives       lks, oar, ryk, stikken
  inflected     djoere, oare, rjochte
  comparative     lder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, jo
    masculine 3rd person er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     sels, elk
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
      2nd person dyn
    masculine 3rd person sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person s, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd/ 3rd person jo, jin
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dit, soks
    plural   dy, it
  interrogative     wr, wa
  relative     dr't, dy't, wat
numerals       mear, safolle, tolve
adverbs       derfoar, op't lst, lyk, neat, salang
  comparative     faker
prepositions       tsjin, snder
conjunctions       dus, as3
interjections       o, och
verbs infinitive     krije, skamje
  present singular 1st person lit, sil
      2nd person leist, meist
      3rd person keapet, kin, lit, nimt
    plural all persons kostje, meitsje, steane
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     boud, makke
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person stie, wie
    plural   wiene, wennen
  imperative     lis, yt
  gerund     it meitsjen, lizzen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, ,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, /, , ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, e
  stretched vowels     , ii





Lesson 13

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   famylje, ierde, neef
    neutral gender   noarden, suden, wurd
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje
  plural both genders   stuollen, huzen
adjectives       stikken, stil
  inflected     rjochte, bste
  comparative     lder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, jo
    masculine 3rd person er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     elk, alles
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
      2nd person dyn
    masculine 3rd person syn, sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person s, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd/ 3rd person jo, jin
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dit, soks
    plural   dy, it
  interrogative     wa, wa2 ,
  relative     dy't, wat
numerals       allegearre, trettjin
adverbs       allinne, boppe, drnei, faaks, hast, dr hinne, lns, mar ris, nder, ynienen
  comparative     faker
prepositions       snder, tusken
conjunctions       as3, dat
interjections       och, ju
verbs infinitive     meinimme, sjen
  present singular 1st person sil, nim
      2nd person meist, giest
      3rd person lit, nimt
    plural all persons begjinne, hearre
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     boud, makke
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person wie, tocht
    plural   wiene, wennen
  imperative     lis, yt
  gerund     it meitsjen, lizzen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, ,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, , , ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, e
  stretched vowels     , ii

Note: Ik tocht, wy moatte der mar ris sjen. This is equivalent to: Ik tocht dat wy der mar ris sjen moasten.
Ik sil nei Amearika, also: Ik sil nei Amearika ta.



Lesson 14

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   ein, fleanmesine, mul, reizger, rym, stoel, trui
    neutral gender   ding, each, feilichheidsrym, nmers, swimfest
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje
  plural both genders   eagen, meter
adjectives       frij, los, wier
  inflected     bste, elke
  comparative     lder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, jo
    masculine 3rd person hy, er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person se, hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     elk, alles
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
      2nd person dyn
    masculine 3rd person syn, sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person s, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd/ 3rd person jo, jin
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat, dit, soks
    plural   sokke, dizze
  interrogative     hoe, wat
  relative     wr't, dr't
numerals       fjirtich, fjirtjin
adverbs       samar, nderweis
  comparative     faker
prepositions       fan2, om, nder, t
conjunctions       of, oft, om't
interjections       ju, tank
verbs infinitive     sitte, sliepe
  present singular 1st person sil, nim
      2nd person meist, giest
      3rd person lit, nimt
    plural all persons begjinne, hearre
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     makke, teld
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person foel, moast, seach, siet
      2nd person koest
    plural   fertelden, koene, moasten, waarden
  imperative     lear, helje
  gerund     lizzen, sjen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, ,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, , , ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, e
  stretched vowels     , ii

Nouns: meter is not changed in plural, like some other nouns when counted: twa pn 'two pounds' (1kg).

 

 

Lesson 15

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   rym, stoel, iene, trui, oersetting
    neutral gender   hier, nmer, papier, resultaat
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje, fekje, suertsje
  plural both genders   druveskers, hannen, hynders
adjectives       frij, los, wier, benaud
  inflected     nuete, krekte, orizjinele, sprutsene
  comparative     lder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, jo
    masculine 3rd person hy, er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person se, hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     elk, alles
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
      2nd person dyn
    masculine 3rd person syn, sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person s, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd/ 3rd person jo, jin, dy
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat, dit, soks
    plural   sokke, dizze
  interrogative     hoe, wat
  relative     wr't, dr't
numerals       fjirtich, fjirtjin
adverbs       dermei, hieltyd, nearne, oarsom, werom
  comparative     faker
prepositions       fan2, om, nder, t
conjunctions       of, oft, om't
interjections       ju, tank
verbs infinitive     sitte, sliepe
  present singular 1st person sil, nim
      2nd person hoechst, sitst, sjochst, witst
      3rd person lit, nimt, jeuzelt, leit, siket
    plural all persons begjinne, hearre
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     makke, teld
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person foel, moast, seach, siet, soe
      2nd person koest, woest
    plural   fertelden, koene, moasten, waarden
  imperative     anderje, ferlykje, fersin, set oer, skriuw, sprek
  gerund     te hynsteriden, te rekkenjen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe, y/i, o, a, u, ,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw, jeuzelt, trui
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, , , ea, oa, eo, nuete
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, e
  stretched vowels     , ii, druveskers

Nouns: Note the vowel shortening in hannen compared to hn. The same in lannen 'lands; countries', bannen 'bands, tyres'.
Word order:
Ik soe it net sizze kinne (SAuAdVAu), 'I would not be able to say it'
Vowels: The 'curled' vowel ue differs from 'stretched' one in druve-!
Note the difference between werom and w
rom 'why'.





The grown Grammar!
Puts together all data gathered above

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   les, fyts, ko, boer, winkel, kast, reis, buorren, grammatika, sker, tee, tsiis, doar, holle, jas, pet, tsjerke, wiette, dei, moarn, skoalle, wei, heit, jierdei, mem, sneon, wike, besite, broer, frou, man, oefening, skoalmaster, suster, wrld, buorman, Fries, hn, jonge, protte, taal, tiid, oere, pit, tafel, tn, bouwer, kant, pake, strjitte, winst, famylje, ierde, neef, ein, fleanmesine, mul, reizger, rym, stoel, iene, trui, oersetting
    neutral gender   hs, wurd, waar, bern, skiep, feest, jier, wurk, jiskfet, bd, ljocht, ms, sin, waar, jild, plak, regear, stik, doel, ln, noarden, suden, wurd, ding, each, feilichheidsrym, nmers, swimfest, hier, nmer, papier, resultaat
  diminutive neutral   hompke, bytsje, famke, eintsje, fekje, suertsje
  plural both genders   weinen, wurden, doarren, froulju, bern, skiep, lstekens, spaasjes, dagen, lju, minsken, beammen, sinesapels, stuollen, huzen, eagen, meter, druveskers, hannen, hynders
adjectives       goed, ld, jong, nij, drok, fol, min, fier, sd, wiet, ml, lang, koart, aardich, eigen, Frysk, grut, heech, lstich, maklik, skjin, smoarch, betiid, kld, let, moai, siik, lks, oar, ryk, stikken, stil, frij, los, wier, benaud
  inflected     nije, tichte, ferline, hiele, lytse, oerstallige, djoere, oare, rjochte, bste, elke, nuete, krekte, orizjinele, sprutsene
  comparative     fierder, lder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, [polite:] jo
    masculine 3rd person hy, [enclitic:] er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person s
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person se, hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     it, men, ien, wat, sels, elk, alles
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
      2nd person dyn
    masculine 3rd person syn, [nominal use:] sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person s, [nominal use:] uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd person jo, dy
      3rd person jin
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   sa'n, dy
    neutral gender   dat, dit, soks
    plural   sokke, dy, it, dizze
  interrogative     hoe, wat, hokker, hoe, wannear, wr, wa, wa2 ,
  relative     wr't, dr't, dy't, wat
numerals       ien, twa, trije, fjouwer, folle, fiif, beide, seis, sn, acht, fjirtich, fyftich, santich, njoggen, alle, tsien, alve, guon, mear, safolle, tolve, allegearre, trettjin, fjirtich, fjirtjin
adverbs       ek, dan, no, noch, gau, grif, hjir, hjoed, net, sa, wis, wol, aanst, dr, drfan, mar, tegearre, der, derom, dochs, efkes, fuort, krekt, mar, moarn, wakker, al, wer, benei, better, dert, dus, faak, op 't heden, lyn, nea, tichterby, tige, wol, altyd, drom, faak, fansels, graach, hielendal, ths, wei, ynoarder, bten, der f, earst, efkes, jns, middeis, moarns, oars, f, sels, dr, derfoar, op't lst, lyk, neat, salang, allinne, boppe, drnei, faaks, hast, dr hinne, lns, mar ris, nder, ynienen, samar, nderweis, dermei, hieltyd, nearne, oarsom, werom
  comparative     faker
prepositions       mei, fan, foar, nei, ta, yn, oer, op, troch, by, oan, te, tsjin, snder, tusken, fan2, om, nder, t
conjunctions       mar, en, dat, as, want, as2, dus, as3, dat, of, oft, om't
interjections       goeie, ja, nee, tanke, sa, no, goendei, hear, och, net, wat, o, och, ju, tank
verbs infinitive     ite, dwaan, ha(wwe), wurde, gean, fine, freegje, leauwe, bringe, hlde, kostje, prate, rinne, sizze, jaan, sitte, krije, skamje, meinimme, sjen, sitte, sliepe
  present singular 1st person bin, haw, kin, draach, tink, wit, gean, lit, sil, nim
      2nd person bist, hast, wolst, bedoelst, wolst, leist, meist, giest, hoechst, sitst, sjochst, witst
      3rd person is, giet, krijt, past, liket, reint, rint, wurdt, wennet, hat, komt, praat, sil, wol, skynt, keapet, kin, lit, nimt, jeuzelt, leit
    plural all_persons binne, hawwe, kinne, geane, sille, kinne, moatte, boartsje, bliuwe, komme, prate, witte, begjinne, leare, moatte, sjogge, wolle, jouwe, sette, kostje, meitsje, steane, begjinne, hearre
  present participle     folgjend, oan it sjongen, oan it fervjen
  past participle     hn, west, lokwinske, gien, kinnen, sjoen, leard, wenne, boud, makke, teld
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person woe, sei, gie, koe, hie, soe, stie, wie, tocht, foel, moast, seach, siet
      2nd person koest, woest
    plural   hiene, wiene, wennen, fertelden, koene, moasten, waarden
  imperative     harkje, lear, rieplachtsje, besykje, sjoch, set, tink, helje, jou, lis, yt, anderje, ferlykje, fersin, set oer, skriuw, sprek, gean
  gerund     te fielen, te hearren, it meitsjen, lizzen, sjen, te hynsteriden, te rekkenjen
names masculine     Jan, Pyt, Aaltsje, Amearika, Frysln, Klaas, Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, , oe/, y/i, o, a, u,
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw, eu, ui
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, /, , ea, oa, eo, ue
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, i, o, e
  stretched vowels     , ii, u