Opdelt sproglære til kursus i frisisk af P. Kramer

Hørende til lektionerne 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 – Tilbage til lektion 1 - Udsagnsord

For hver enkel lektion, vil nye ord blive skrevet med fed skrift. Ord, der allerede er blevet præsenteret i tidligere lektioner, vil oftest ikke optræde i ordlisten igen, men kan findes under Samlet sproglære.

Lektion 1

Du lærte:

Kendeord        
Navneord fælleskøn     les
Tillægsord       goed
Stedord personlige Genstandsfald/hensynsfald 1. person my
      2. person dy
  upersonlige     it
  spørgende (interrogative)     hoe
Talord       ien
Biord        
Forholdsord       mei
Bindeord        
Udråb       goeie
Udsagnsord nutid ental 3. person is, giet
Egennavne hankøn     Jan, Pyt
Selvlyde (vokaler) korte     les, is, ò (Jan), hoe, Pyt
  lange og tvelyde (diftonger)     mei, dy, my
  'krusede' tvelyde (diftonger)     ien, goed
  'afbrudte' tvelyde (diftonger)      
  ”strækkede” selvlyde (vokaler)      

Bortset fra is, slutter 3. person ental af udsagnsord sædvanligvis med t: giet.
Bemærk den specielle udtale af y i dy, my (og også i hy); dette forekommer kun i disse ord, når ordene er betonede.
Bemærk den specielle udtale af it med e-lyden!




Lektion 2

Nye ord er skrevet med fed skrift:

Kendeord ental fælleskøn   de
    intetkøn   it
  flertal begge køn   de
Navneord ental fælleskøn   fyts, ko, wein
    intetkøn   hûs
  flertal begge køn   weinen
Tillægsord       âld, jong, nij
Stedord personlige genstandsfald/hensynsfald 1. person my
      2. person dy
  upersonlige     it
  spørgende (interrogativ)     hoe
Talord       ien, twa
Biord       ek
Forholdord       mei, nei
Bindeord       mar
Udråb       goeie
Udsagnsord nutid ental 3. person is, giet
    flertal alle personer binne
  imperative     harkje
Egennavne hankøn     Jan, Pyt
Selvlyde (vokaler) korte     e, i, ò, oe, y, jong, mar
  lange & tvelyde (diftonger)     ei/y/ij, ko, twa
  'krusede' tvelyde (diftonger)     ie, oe, âld,
  'afbrudte' tvelyde (diftonger)      
  strækkede selvlyde (vokaler)     hûs

Grammatikalsk køn: De fleste navneord er fælleskøn og burger de som bestemt kendeord.
Et par navneord er intetkøn (hûs) med it som bestemt kendeord og udviser en række andre særegenheder.
Flertal bliver almindeligvis dannet ved vedhæftelse af -en til ental: weinen.
Det samme gælder for fytsen, lessen; i det sidst nævnte tilfælde er der også tale om en fordobling, ss – den er nødvendig for at vise den korrekte udtale.
Nogle ord ændrer selvlyd i flertal: hûs - huzen.
En række ord har uregelmæssig flertalsdannelse: af ko får vi eksempelvis kij.
Udsagnsord: Husk at -e‘et (sædvanligvis efter udsagnsord) udtales tydeligt! – ikke ligesom i jysk, dvs. IKKE: at sove [å såw].
Harkje is an example of the second class of weak verbs, only preserved in Frisian.





Lektion 3

Kendeord ental fælleskøn   de
    intetkøn   it
  ubestemt begge køn   in
  flertal begge køn   de
Navneord ental fælleskøn   boer, winkel
    intetkøn   hûs
  flertal begge køn   weinen
Tillægsord       nij, drok
Stedord personlige nævnefald 1. person ik
      2. person do
    genstandsfald/hensynsfald 1.person my
      2. person dy
  upersonlig     it
  spørgende (interrogativ     hoe
Talord       twa, trije
Biord       boppe, dan, no, noch
Forholdsord       mei
Bindeord       mar, en
Udråb       ja, nee
Udsagnsord nutid ental 1. person bin, haw
      2. person bist, hast
      3. person is, giet
    flertal alle personer binne
  lang tillægsform     folgjend
Egennavne hankøn     Jan, Pyt
selvlyde (vokaler) korte     e, i, ò, oe, y, o, a
  lange og tvelyde (diftonger)     ei/y/ij, o, a, nee
  'krusede' tvelyde (diftonger)     ie, oe, â
  'afbrudte' tvelyde (diftonger)      
  strækkede selvlyde (vokaler)     û

Den normale rækkefølge på frisisk: ik (grundled, dvs. subjekt) bin (udsagnsled, dvs. verb) boer (genstandsled, dvs. objekt), ik haw in winkel = SVO
IKKE ved spørgsmål: bist (udsagsnled, dvs. verb) do (grundled, dvs. subjekt) boer (genstandsled, dvs. objekt)? = VSO.
Og IKKE efter biord: Dan hast (V) do (S) it drok (Adled): VSAd.
De lange tillægsformer anvendes kun begrænset – og slet ikke i samme omfang som eksempelvis på engelsk.
Bemærk udtalen af i’et i in – dvs. e-lyden!

SELVLYDE (vokaler) Som du har allerede har mødt: Som du senere vil stifte bekendtskab med:
korte a, e, i, ò, o, oe, y u, ú
lange & tvelyde (diftonger) a/aa, e/ee, ei/ij/y, o/oo au/ou, ui., eu
'krusede' tvelyde (diftonger) â/ô, ie, oe ea, ê, oa, ue
'afbrudte' tvelyde (diftonger)   iè, eà, oà, uo, ju
strækkede selvlyde (vokaler) û ii
Bemærk: aa, ee, oo, ô er andre stavemåder for henholdsvis a, e, o i åbne stavelser og for â.





Lektion 4

Kendeord ental fælleskøn   de
    intetkøn   it
  ubestemte begge køn   in
  flertal begge køn   de
Navneord ental fælleskøn   kast, reis
    intetkøn   hûs
  flertal begge køn   weinen
Tillægsord       fol, min
Stedord personlige (ental) nævnefald 1. person ik
      2. person do
    genstandsfald/hensynsfald 1. person my
      2. person dy
  personlige (flertal)      
    alle fald 2. person jim
  ubestemte     it, men
  ejestedord      
    flertal 1. person ús
  tilbagevisende      
  distributive      
  demonstrative     sa'n
    intetkøn   dat
  spørgende (interrogative)     hoe
  relative      
Talord       fjouwer, folle
Biord       gau, grif, hjir, hjoed, net, sa, wis, wol
Forholdsord       mei
Forbindere       mar, en
Udråb       nee, tanke
Udsagnsord navnemåde (infinitiv)     ite
  nutid ental 1. person bin, haw
      2. person bist, hast
      3. person krijt, past
    flertal alle personer hawwe, kinne
  nutids tillægsmåde     folgjend
  datids tillægsmåde     hân
Egennavne hankøn     Jan, Pyt
selvlyde (vokaler) korte     e, i, ò, oe, y/ ite, o, a, juster, ús
  lange og diftonger     ei/y/ij, o, a, ee, fjouwer/ gau
  'krusede' diftonger     ie, oe, â,
  'afbrudte' diftonger      
  strækkede vokaler     û

Normal word order: SVAd: ús kast is fol.
Jim (S) kinne (V) hjir hjoed wol (Adjunct) ite (Auxilliary) > SVAdAu. (English SVAuAd).
Auxillary do is not used in Frisian: past dat jim? 'does it suit you?'


Normal rækkefølge for ordtyperne (syntaks): SVAd: ús kast (grundled [subjekt]) is (udsagsnord [verbum]) fol (adled).
Jim (grundled [subjekt]) kinne (udsagnsord [verbum]) hjir hjoed wol (adled) ite (hjælpeudsagnsord) > SVAdH.



Lektion 5

Kendeord ental fælleskøn   de, 'e
    intetkøn   it
  ubestemt begge køn   in
  flertal begge køn   de
Navneord ental fælleskøn   buorren, grammatika, sûker, tee, tsiis|
    intetkøn   hûs, wurd
  diminutiv intetkøn   hompke
  flertal begge køn   weinen, wurden
Tillægsord       fier, sêd
  bøjede     nije
  højere grad (komparativ)     fierder
Stedord personlige (ental) nævnefald 1. person ik
      2. person do
    genstandsfald/hensynsfald 1. person my
      2. person dy
  personlige (flertal)     wy
    alle fald 2. person jim
  ubestemte     it, men
  ejestedord      
    flertal 1. person ús
  tilbagevisende      
  distributive      
  demonstrative      
    intetkøn   dat
  spørgende (interrogative)     hoe, wat
  relative      
Talord       folle, fiif
Biord       aanst, dêr, dêrfan
Forholdsord       fan, foar, ta, yn
Forbindere       mar, en
Udråb       nee, tanke
Udsagnsord navnemåde (infinitiv)     dwaan, ha(wwe), wurde
  nutid ental 1. person haw, kin
      2. person hast, wolst
      3. person past, liket
    flertal alle personer geane, sille
  nutids tillægsmåde     folgjend
  datids tillægsmåde     hân
  datid ental 3. person sei
  hankøn     lear, rieplachtsje, besykje
Egennavne masculine     Jan, Pyt
selvlyde (vokaler) korte     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, sûker
  lange & diftonger     ei/y/ij, o, a, ee, ou/au, aanst
  'krusede' diftonger     ie, oe, â, dêr, geane
  'afbrudte' diftonger     buorren, fièrder, foàr
  strækkede selvlyde (vokaler)     û, fiif

Diminutiver (formindskelsesord) er altid intetkøn (eksempelvis it hompke) og formes sædvanligvis ved ”vedhæftelserne” (suffikserne) -ke: leske, fytske, koke, boerke, reiske.
Ender ordets oprindelige form på enten -l eller -n, vil endelsen være -tsje: winkeltsje, weintsje. Ender ordets oprindelig form på -k eller -t vedhæftes endelsen -je: bakje 'lille kasse', kastje.
I visse tilfælde ændres ordets stamme også: hûs- húske, fiif- fyfke 'en 5-gyldenmønt'; ved vedhæftelse af endelse, forsvinder -e: hompe- hompke.
Diminutivformerne kan laves af stort set alle navneord og endda af egennavne. Men tro ikke, at du, ved udelukkende at bruge diminutivformerne, kan undgå at lære ordenes køn! Dette vil resultere i, at du vil fremstå alt for blødsøden.
Foranstilte tillægsord bøjes altid med bøjningsendelsen –e, når navneordet, som det hæftes til, er fælleskøn: de nije wein, in nije wein, nije weinen. Når navneordet derimod er intetkøn vedhæftes bøjningsendelsen kun i flertal eller med det bestemte kendeord: it nije hûs, de nije huzen, men ellers udelades det: in nij hûs, nij wetter 'nyt vand'.
”Substantiverede” tillægsord efter det ubestemte kendeord in tilføjer -n: in nijen 'en ny én'.
Bemærk den anden klasse af udsagnsord med endelsen –je i navnemåde: rieplachtsje, lykje, besykje. Nutidsendelserne for ental er: -je, -est, -et; flertal: -je. ALTSÅ: ik lykje, do likest, hy liket; wy lykje. Den første klasse har navnemådeendelsen -e: leare. Nutidsendelserne for ental er: -, -st, -t; flertal: -e. ALTSÅ: ik lear, do learst, hy leart; wy leare.
Brugt som hjælpeudsagnsord: wolle 'ønske, ville': wolst do .. ha?; sille 'være hensigten; blive [i fremtid]': wat sille wy ..?; moatte 'måtte'; kinne 'kunne'; meie 'måtte, at have lov til'. De fleste af disse hjælpeudsagnsord har i nutid ikke den regelmæssig –t-endelse i 3. person ental: hy wol, hy sil, hy kin, hy mei.



Lesson 6

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   doar, holle, jas, pet, tsjerke, wiette
    neutral gender   wurd, waar
  diminutive neutral   hompke, bytsje
  plural both genders   doarren, froulju
adjectives       sêd, wiet
  inflected     nije, tichte
  comparative     fierder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
  indefinite     it, men
  possessive      
    plural 1st person ús
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative      
    neutral gender   dat
  interrogative     wat, hokker
  relative      
numerals       beide, seis
adverbs       mar, tegearre ||
prepositions       oer, op, troch
conjunctions       mar, en
interjections       nee, tanke
verbs infinitive     wurde, gean
  present singular 1st person kin, draach
      2nd person hast, wolst
      3rd person liket, reint
    plural all persons kinne, moatte
  present participle     folgjend
  past participle     hân
  past tense singular 1st person woe
      3rd person sei
  imperative     besykje
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, û
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â, ê, ea, doar
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, tegeàrre
  stretched vowels     û, ii

Nouns: frou has a special plural froulju; so manlju to man.
Vowel 'breaking' in plural shows doarren to doar. From wiet is derived wiètte with broken vowel.
Verbs: Compare plural geane to infinitive gean. This difference is charactistic for the few monosyllabic verbs:
stean 'stand', wy steane; slaan 'hit', wy slane; jaan 'to give', wy jouwe; dwaan, wy dogge; sjen 'to see', wy sjogge.





Lesson 7

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   dei, moarn, skoalle, wei
    neutral gender   bern, skiep
  diminutive neutral   hompke
  plural both genders   bern, skiep
adjectives       wiet, mâl
  inflected     nije, tichte
  comparative     fierder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person se, hja
  indefinite     men, ien
  possessive      
    plural 1st person ús
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative      
    neutral gender   dat
  interrogative     hoe, wat, hokker
  relative      
numerals       seis, sân
adverbs       der, derom, dochs, efkes, fuort, krekt, mar, moarn, wakker
prepositions       by, oan
conjunctions       en, dat
interjections       tanke, sa
verbs infinitive     wurde, gean
  present singular 1st person draach, tink
      2nd person hast, wolst
      3rd person reint, rint
    plural all persons moatte, boartsje
  present participle     folgjend, oan it sjongen
  past participle     hân, west
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person sei, gie
  imperative     besykje, sjoch
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, û
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â, ê, ea
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, eà
  stretched vowels     û, ii

Nouns: Note that bern is unchanged in plural; only the article changes. The same with skiep.
Irregular plurals also for wei - wegen and dei - dagen.
Adjectives: Sometimes flection is omitted in order to show affection: it
mâl waar, de âld man.
Adverbs: der is often used in places where it would be superfluous in English, but not as often as in Dutch!
By dochs is here meant 'notwithstanding the bad weather'.
Verbs:
The construction with oan it .. is only used to stress that the action is continuing.





Lesson 8

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   heit, jierdei, mem, sneon, wike
    neutral gender   feest, jier
  diminutive neutral   hompke
  plural both genders   froulju, bern
adjectives       wiet, mâl
  inflected     nije, tichte
  comparative     fierder, âlder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    masculine 3rd person hy, [enclitic:] er
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
         
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person se, hja
  indefinite     men, ien
  possessive masculine 3rd person syn, [nominal use:] sines
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person ús, [nominal use:] uzes
      2nd person jim
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat
  interrogative     hoe, wannear
  relative      
numerals       acht, fjirtich, fyftich, santich
adverbs       al, gau, wer
prepositions       by, oan
conjunctions       dat, as
interjections       sa, no
verbs infinitive     wurde, gean
  present singular 1st person draach, tink
      2nd person hast, wolst
      3rd person rint, wurdt
    plural all persons moatte, boartsje
  present participle     folgjend, oan it sjongen
  past participle     west, lokwinske
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person sei, gie
  imperative     sjoch, set
names masculine     Jan, Pyt
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, û
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â, ê, ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, eà
  stretched vowels     û, ii

Days of the week: snein, moandei [mandi], tiisdei, woansdei [vã:zdi], tongersdei, freed, sneon.
Verbs:
The past participle of the -je-verbs usually ends in -e: lokwinske, rieplachte, but besocht 'tried'.
Verbs with stem ending in -d just as well gets a -t in the 3rd person singular: wurdt.
Pronouns: The next of kin is always indicated with the plural forms ús, jim.
Vowels: The sound eo appears also written as eu before r (seure 'complain') and as eau in past participles like bleaun 'stayed', skreaun 'written' to driuwe, skriuwe.





Lesson 9

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   besite, broer, frou, man, oefening, skoalmaster, suster, wrâld
    neutral gender   jier, wurk
  diminutive neutral   hompke
  plural both genders   lêstekens, spaasjes
adjectives       lang, koart
  inflected     ferline, hiele, lytse, oerstallige
  comparative     fierder, âlder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do
    masculine 3rd person er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person hja, dy
  indefinite     ien, wat
  possessive singular 1st person myn
    masculine 3rd person syn, sines
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person ús, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive      
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat
  interrogative     wannear, wêr
  relative     wêr't
numerals       santich, njoggen
adverbs       benei, better, derút, dus, faak, op 't heden, lyn, nea, noch, tichterby, tige, wol
  comparative     faker
prepositions       by, oan
conjunctions       as, want
interjections       sa, no
verbs infinitive     fine, freegje, leauwe
  present singular 1st person tink, wit
      2nd person wolst, bedoelst
      3rd person wurdt, wennet
    plural all persons bliuwe, komme, prate, witte
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     gien, kinnen, sjoen
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person gie, koe
    plural   hiene, wiene
  imperative     tink, helje
names masculine     Aaltsje, Amearika, Fryslân, Klaas, Ljouwert
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, û
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â, ê, ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, eà
  stretched vowels     û, ii

Normal word order with two auxilliaries: Se hiene hjir better wat tichterby bliuwe kinnen = SAuAdVAu.
After adverb: Dan hiene se [..] bliuwe kinnen = AdAuSVAu.
With one auxilliary: Dêr koe har man wurk fine = AdAuSOV (compare grammar lessons 3 and 4).
Nouns ending in -en, -er as well as foreign words and
diminutives ending in -e have plurals in -s: lêstekens, spaasjes, hompkes.
Adjektives not inflected after a possessive with a neutral noun: har nij hûs. Commons: myn nije wein.
Verbs: Inverted word order do bedoelst? stresses do more than normal: bedoelst do?





Lesson 10

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   buorman, Fries, hûn, jonge, protte, taal, tiid
    neutral gender   wurk, jiskfet
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje
  plural both genders   dagen, lju, minsken
adjectives       aardich, eigen, Frysk, grut, heech, lêstich, maklik, skjin, smoarch
  inflected     lytse, oerstallige
  comparative     fierder, âlder
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, [polite:] jo
    masculine 3rd person er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person hja, dy
  indefinite     wat, sels
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
    masculine 3rd person sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person ús, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd person jo
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat
    plural   sokke
  interrogative     wêr, wa
  relative     wêr't
numerals       alle, tsien
adverbs       altyd, dêrom, faak, fansels, graach, hielendal, thús, wei, ynoarder
  comparative     faker
prepositions       te, tsjin
conjunctions       as2, dus
interjections       goendei, hear, och
verbs infinitive     bringe, hâlde, kostje, prate, rinne, sizze
  present singular 1st person wit, gean
      2nd person wolst, bedoelst
      3rd person hat, komt, praat, sil, wol
    plural all persons begjinne, leare, moatte, sjogge, wolle
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     leard, wenne
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person hie, soe
    plural   hiene, wiene
  imperative     tink, helje
  gerund     te fielen, te hearren, it meitsjen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, û
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â, ê, ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, eà
  stretched vowels     û, ii

Verbs: with jo in the present the plural form applies: jo begjinne.



Lesson 11

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   oere, pit, tafel, tún
    neutral gender   bêd, ljocht, mês, sin, waar
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje
  plural both genders   beammen, sinesapels, stuollen
adjectives       betiid, kâld, let, moai, siik
  inflected     lytse, oerstallige
  comparative     âlder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, jo
    masculine 3rd person er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     wat, sels
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
    masculine 3rd person sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person ús, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd person jo
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat
    plural   dy, it
  interrogative     wêr, wa
  relative     wêr't
numerals       alve, guon
adverbs       bûten, der ôf, earst, efkes, jûns, middeis, moarns, oars, ôf, sels
  comparative     faker
prepositions       tsjin, sûnder
conjunctions       dus, as3
interjections       net, wat
verbs infinitive     jaan, sitte
  present singular 1st person lit, sil
      2nd person leist, meist
      3rd person wol, skynt
    plural all persons jouwe, sette
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     leard, wenne
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person hie, soe
    plural   hiene, wiene
  imperative     jou, lis, yt
  gerund     it meitsjen, lizzen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, û
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â, ê, ea, eo, ôf
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, eà
  stretched vowels     û, ii

The adverbs derfan, derôf are separable, see also dêrfan, lesson 5



Lesson 12

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   bouwer, kant, pake, strjitte, winst
    neutral gender   jild, plak, regear, stik
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje
  plural both genders   stuollen, huzen
adjectives       lúks, oar, ryk, stikken
  inflected     djoere, oare, rjochte
  comparative     âlder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, jo
    masculine 3rd person er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     sels, elk
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
      2nd person dyn
    masculine 3rd person sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person ús, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd/ 3rd person jo, jin
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dit, soks
    plural   dy, it
  interrogative     wêr, wa
  relative     dêr't, dy't, wat
numerals       mear, safolle, tolve
adverbs       derfoar, op't lêst, lyk, neat, salang
  comparative     faker
prepositions       tsjin, sûnder
conjunctions       dus, as3
interjections       o, och
verbs infinitive     krije, skamje
  present singular 1st person lit, sil
      2nd person leist, meist
      3rd person keapet, kin, lit, nimt
    plural all persons kostje, meitsje, steane
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     boud, makke
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person stie, wie
    plural   wiene, wennen
  imperative     lis, yt
  gerund     it meitsjen, lizzen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, û
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â/ô, ê, ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, eà
  stretched vowels     û, ii





Lesson 13

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   famylje, ierde, neef
    neutral gender   noarden, suden, wurd
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje
  plural both genders   stuollen, huzen
adjectives       stikken, stil
  inflected     rjochte, bêste
  comparative     âlder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, jo
    masculine 3rd person er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     elk, alles
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
      2nd person dyn
    masculine 3rd person syn, sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person ús, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd/ 3rd person jo, jin
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dit, soks
    plural   dy, it
  interrogative     wa, wa2 ,
  relative     dy't, wat
numerals       allegearre, trettjin
adverbs       allinne, boppe, dêrnei, faaks, hast, dêr hinne, lâns, mar ris, ûnder, ynienen
  comparative     faker
prepositions       sûnder, tusken
conjunctions       as3, dat
interjections       och, ju
verbs infinitive     meinimme, sjen
  present singular 1st person sil, nim
      2nd person meist, giest
      3rd person lit, nimt
    plural all persons begjinne, hearre
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     boud, makke
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person wie, tocht
    plural   wiene, wennen
  imperative     lis, yt
  gerund     it meitsjen, lizzen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, û
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â, ê, ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, eà
  stretched vowels     û, ii

Note: Ik tocht, wy moatte der mar ris sjen. This is equivalent to: Ik tocht dat wy der mar ris sjen moasten.
Ik sil nei Amearika, also: Ik sil nei Amearika ta.



Lesson 14

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   ein, fleanmesine, mul, reizger, rym, stoel, trui
    neutral gender   ding, each, feilichheidsrym, nûmers, swimfest
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje
  plural both genders   eagen, meter
adjectives       frij, los, wier
  inflected     bêste, elke
  comparative     âlder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, jo
    masculine 3rd person hy, er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person se, hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     elk, alles
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
      2nd person dyn
    masculine 3rd person syn, sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person ús, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd/ 3rd person jo, jin
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat, dit, soks
    plural   sokke, dizze
  interrogative     hoe, wat
  relative     wêr't, dêr't
numerals       fjirtich, fjirtjin
adverbs       samar, ûnderweis
  comparative     faker
prepositions       fan2, om, ûnder, út
conjunctions       of, oft, om't
interjections       ju, tank
verbs infinitive     sitte, sliepe
  present singular 1st person sil, nim
      2nd person meist, giest
      3rd person lit, nimt
    plural all persons begjinne, hearre
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     makke, teld
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person foel, moast, seach, siet
      2nd person koest
    plural   fertelden, koene, moasten, waarden
  imperative     lear, helje
  gerund     lizzen, sjen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, û
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â, ê, ea, eo
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, eà
  stretched vowels     û, ii

Nouns: meter is not changed in plural, like some other nouns when counted: twa pûn 'two pounds' (1kg).

 

 

Lesson 15

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   rym, stoel, iene, trui, oersetting
    neutral gender   hier, nûmer, papier, resultaat
  diminutive neutral   famke, eintsje, fekje, suertsje
  plural both genders   druvesûkers, hannen, hynders
adjectives       frij, los, wier, benaud
  inflected     nuete, krekte, orizjinele, sprutsene
  comparative     âlder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, jo
    masculine 3rd person hy, er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person se, hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     elk, alles
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
      2nd person dyn
    masculine 3rd person syn, sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person ús, uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd/ 3rd person jo, jin, dy
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   dy
    neutral gender   dat, dit, soks
    plural   sokke, dizze
  interrogative     hoe, wat
  relative     wêr't, dêr't
numerals       fjirtich, fjirtjin
adverbs       dermei, hieltyd, nearne, oarsom, werom
  comparative     faker
prepositions       fan2, om, ûnder, út
conjunctions       of, oft, om't
interjections       ju, tank
verbs infinitive     sitte, sliepe
  present singular 1st person sil, nim
      2nd person hoechst, sitst, sjochst, witst
      3rd person lit, nimt, jeuzelt, leit, siket
    plural all persons begjinne, hearre
  present participle     oan it fervjen
  past participle     makke, teld
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person foel, moast, seach, siet, soe
      2nd person koest, woest
    plural   fertelden, koene, moasten, waarden
  imperative     anderje, ferlykje, fersin, set oer, skriuw, sprek
  gerund     te hynsteriden, te rekkenjen
names masculine     Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe, y/i, o, a, u, ú, û
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw, jeuzelt, trui
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â, ê, ea, oa, eo, nuete
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, eà
  stretched vowels     û, ii, druvesûkers

Nouns: Note the vowel shortening in hannen compared to hân. The same in lannen 'lands; countries', bannen 'bands, tyres'.
Word order:
Ik soe it net sizze kinne (SAuAdVAu), 'I would not be able to say it'
Vowels: The 'curled' vowel ue differs from 'stretched' one in druve-!
Note the difference between werom and w
êrom 'why'.





The grown Grammar!
Puts together all data gathered above

articles singular common gender   de, 'e
    neutral gender   it, 't
  indefinite both genders   in
  plural both genders   de
nouns singular common gender   les, fyts, ko, boer, winkel, kast, reis, buorren, grammatika, sûker, tee, tsiis, doar, holle, jas, pet, tsjerke, wiette, dei, moarn, skoalle, wei, heit, jierdei, mem, sneon, wike, besite, broer, frou, man, oefening, skoalmaster, suster, wrâld, buorman, Fries, hûn, jonge, protte, taal, tiid, oere, pit, tafel, tún, bouwer, kant, pake, strjitte, winst, famylje, ierde, neef, ein, fleanmesine, mul, reizger, rym, stoel, iene, trui, oersetting
    neutral gender   hûs, wurd, waar, bern, skiep, feest, jier, wurk, jiskfet, bêd, ljocht, mês, sin, waar, jild, plak, regear, stik, doel, lân, noarden, suden, wurd, ding, each, feilichheidsrym, nûmers, swimfest, hier, nûmer, papier, resultaat
  diminutive neutral   hompke, bytsje, famke, eintsje, fekje, suertsje
  plural both genders   weinen, wurden, doarren, froulju, bern, skiep, lêstekens, spaasjes, dagen, lju, minsken, beammen, sinesapels, stuollen, huzen, eagen, meter, druvesûkers, hannen, hynders
adjectives       goed, âld, jong, nij, drok, fol, min, fier, sêd, wiet, mâl, lang, koart, aardich, eigen, Frysk, grut, heech, lêstich, maklik, skjin, smoarch, betiid, kâld, let, moai, siik, lúks, oar, ryk, stikken, stil, frij, los, wier, benaud
  inflected     nije, tichte, ferline, hiele, lytse, oerstallige, djoere, oare, rjochte, bêste, elke, nuete, krekte, orizjinele, sprutsene
  comparative     fierder, âlder, moaier
pronouns personal singular nominative 1st person ik
      2nd person do, [polite:] jo
    masculine 3rd person hy, [enclitic:] er, dy
    feminine 3rd person se
    acc./dative 1st person my
      2nd person dy
    masculine 3rd person him
  personal plural nominative 1st person wy
    acc./dative 1st person ús
    all cases 2nd person jim
    nominative 3rd person se, hja, dy
    acc./dative 3rd person se
  indefinite     it, men, ien, wat, sels, elk, alles
    plural   sokken
  possessive singular 1st person myn
      2nd person dyn
    masculine 3rd person syn, [nominal use:] sines; jins
    feminine 3rd person har
    plural 1st person ús, [nominal use:] uzes
      2nd person jim
      3rd person har
  reflexive   2nd person jo, dy
      3rd person jin
  distributive      
  demonstrative common gender   sa'n, dy
    neutral gender   dat, dit, soks
    plural   sokke, dy, it, dizze
  interrogative     hoe, wat, hokker, hoe, wannear, wêr, wa, wa2 ,
  relative     wêr't, dêr't, dy't, wat
numerals       ien, twa, trije, fjouwer, folle, fiif, beide, seis, sân, acht, fjirtich, fyftich, santich, njoggen, alle, tsien, alve, guon, mear, safolle, tolve, allegearre, trettjin, fjirtich, fjirtjin
adverbs       ek, dan, no, noch, gau, grif, hjir, hjoed, net, sa, wis, wol, aanst, dêr, dêrfan, mar, tegearre, der, derom, dochs, efkes, fuort, krekt, mar, moarn, wakker, al, wer, benei, better, derút, dus, faak, op 't heden, lyn, nea, tichterby, tige, wol, altyd, dêrom, faak, fansels, graach, hielendal, thús, wei, ynoarder, bûten, der ôf, earst, efkes, jûns, middeis, moarns, oars, ôf, sels, dêr, derfoar, op't lêst, lyk, neat, salang, allinne, boppe, dêrnei, faaks, hast, dêr hinne, lâns, mar ris, ûnder, ynienen, samar, ûnderweis, dermei, hieltyd, nearne, oarsom, werom
  comparative     faker
prepositions       mei, fan, foar, nei, ta, yn, oer, op, troch, by, oan, te, tsjin, sûnder, tusken, fan2, om, ûnder, út
conjunctions       mar, en, dat, as, want, as2, dus, as3, dat, of, oft, om't
interjections       goeie, ja, nee, tanke, sa, no, goendei, hear, och, net, wat, o, och, ju, tank
verbs infinitive     ite, dwaan, ha(wwe), wurde, gean, fine, freegje, leauwe, bringe, hâlde, kostje, prate, rinne, sizze, jaan, sitte, krije, skamje, meinimme, sjen, sitte, sliepe
  present singular 1st person bin, haw, kin, draach, tink, wit, gean, lit, sil, nim
      2nd person bist, hast, wolst, bedoelst, wolst, leist, meist, giest, hoechst, sitst, sjochst, witst
      3rd person is, giet, krijt, past, liket, reint, rint, wurdt, wennet, hat, komt, praat, sil, wol, skynt, keapet, kin, lit, nimt, jeuzelt, leit
    plural all_persons binne, hawwe, kinne, geane, sille, kinne, moatte, boartsje, bliuwe, komme, prate, witte, begjinne, leare, moatte, sjogge, wolle, jouwe, sette, kostje, meitsje, steane, begjinne, hearre
  present participle     folgjend, oan it sjongen, oan it fervjen
  past participle     hân, west, lokwinske, gien, kinnen, sjoen, leard, wenne, boud, makke, teld
  past tense singular 1st & 3rd person woe, sei, gie, koe, hie, soe, stie, wie, tocht, foel, moast, seach, siet
      2nd person koest, woest
    plural   hiene, wiene, wennen, fertelden, koene, moasten, waarden
  imperative     harkje, lear, rieplachtsje, besykje, sjoch, set, tink, helje, jou, lis, yt, anderje, ferlykje, fersin, set oer, skriuw, sprek, gean
  gerund     te fielen, te hearren, it meitsjen, lizzen, sjen, te hynsteriden, te rekkenjen
names masculine     Jan, Pyt, Aaltsje, Amearika, Fryslân, Klaas, Ljouwert, Simen
vowels shorts     e, i, ò, oe/û, y/i, o, a, u, ú
  longs & diphthongs     ei/y/ij, o, a/aa, ee, ou/au, eauw/iuw, eu, ui
  'curled' diphthongs     ie, oe, â/ô, ê, ea, oa, eo, ue
  'broken' diphthongs     uo, iè, oà, eà
  stretched vowels     û, ii, u